explorations - nouveaux objets - croisements des sciences

L'auteur

Vronique Mrieux

veronique.merieux [chez] unice.fr

Référence

Vronique Mrieux, « Dans loeil du miroir maniriste. Le dni du chaos du rel », Influxus, [En ligne], mis en ligne le 21 janvier 2015. URL : http://www.influxus.eu/article965.html - Consulté le 11 décembre 2018.

Dans loeil du miroir maniriste. Le dni du chaos du rel

par Vronique Mrieux

Résumé

Lil du peintre, ouvert sur le monde, trouve sans doute lune de ses allgories les plus opratoires dans lorbe du miroir dont la surface rflexive, comme le regard, capte les images, les recompose et reproduit limage dobjets placs face lui. A lobjet miroir peut en effet tre naturellement associe une relation analogique entre la ralit virtuelle que ce dernier restitue spontanment et la recration artificielle du rel opre par lil du peintre. Le recours lobjet miroir simpose ds lors comme lun des signes potiques les plus efficients pour sonder le point de vue ontologique du regard de lartiste, son parti pris en un temps et un lieu donns. Cette analogie signifiante entre la rflexion de lil de lartiste et celle du miroir savra particulirement durant le Manirisme italien, lune des priodes de production artistique les plus enclines exprimenter les distorsions du champ de vision naturel autorises par le medium du miroir. Les artistes, acteurs, tmoins et pour une part protagonistes du chancellement des grandes certitudes de la rayonnante culture Renaissante du XVe sicle, tentent en effet alors de refonder un point de vue plus idoine retranscrire le dlitement de la stabilit passe, disloque la crise de la Renaissance. Nous examinerons la dislocation de la perception qui, en cho aux temps troubls, fait alors son entre et sinstalle dans le champ artistique. Jeux de miroirs, jeux dillusion et de trompe-lil anamorphiques: la capacit des miroirs manifester simultanment plusieurs facettes du rel, voire plusieurs ralits, installe cet objet dans la reprsentation maniriste et taie sa potique de distorsion du rel. Pour certains artistes, le recours au miroir traduit une crispation autour dune vision artificiellement matrise des choses. Pour dautres, le miroir permet de dformer la traduction du rel et de sloigner des lignes de force ralistes pour se rfugier dans un imaginaire indit. Nous sonderons le premier de ces points de vue qui semploie biaiser habilement toute forme de ralit inquitante et dissimuler, en lannulant grce de savants jeux de miroirs, sa dislocation pourtant effective. Lartiste Giorgio Vasari accompagnera notre investigation, au titre dartiste parmi les plus reprsentatifs de cet effort dendiguement et de dni du chaos du rel dont le dbut du XVIe sicle fut pourtant bel et bien travers.

Abstract

The painters eye, open on the world, undoubtedly finds one of its best allegory in the mirrors orb, which reflective surface, like the eye, captures images, reconstructs them and imitates the image of objects facing it. Indeed, the mirror can naturally be associated to an analogical relation between the virtual reality it spontaneously renders, and the artificial recreation of reality, operated by the painters eye. The use of such an object thus appears to be one of the most efficientpoetic symbols to probe the ontological point of view of the artists look, as well as its position at a given time and place. This significant analogy between the reflection in the eye of the artist and in a mirror, explicitly integrated in the depiction, was particularly observable in the time of Italian Mannerism, one of the artistic movements most inclined to experiment distortion in the natural field of vision through the mirror medium. These sight distortions, explicitly represented by the mirror, reveal the deviant operating points of view, thus transforming the conception and even the function of the artists eye, after over two centuries of perspective vanishing point unchallenged reign, that was unique and reassuring. Until then, the mirror constituted an extension of the painters eye, the instrument apt to seize and capture in an exact Panopticon vision his or her Aristotelian perception of reality. With the upsurge of the Post-Renaissance mannerist swing, mirrors are elected for their illusionist powers. Artists, actors, witnesses and, for a great part, protagonists of the great scientific, political and economic certainties vacillating of the radiating Fifteenth century Renaissance culture, tried indeed to restructure a more appropriate point of view to transpose the disintegration of past stability, dislocated by what we know as the Renaissance crisis. Our aim here will be to illustrate in what way the exactitude of the plane mirrors reflection, an instrument favoured by the Renaissance painter to observe and measure the world exactly, under the laws of optical perspective, was, in the beginning of the Sixteenth century, considered as holding deviant values and functions. We will specifically examine the perception disintegration, which, echoing certain trouble times, breaks in the artistic field and lasts. Indeed, the mannerist artist starts to experiment mirror games by which he enjoys elaborating expert artifices, illusions, anamorphosic trompe-loeil. The mirrors capacity to simultaneously show several aspects of reality, even several realities, installs them in the mannerist representation and supports its reality distortion poetics. For some artists who mainly evolved in the official and conservative spheres, using the mirror translated a tension around an artificially controlled vision of the world. For others, the mirror enabled to deform the reflection of reality, draw away from realistic lignes de force, as well as taking refuge in an unprecedented imaginary world. We will develop here the first point of view by showing how it skilfully works on equivocating each troubling form of reality necessary to hide, by cancelling, thanks to brilliant mirror games, its effective disintegration. We will examine how these artists managed to freeze in their mirrors an embalmed order of reality, evacuating and denying the undesirable momentary revival of a Renaissance reality that does nothing but agonizing. The artist Giorgio Vasari will accompany our investigation, being one of the most emblematic artists of this containment effort and of the denial of the chaos of reality, though the latter marked the beginning of the Sixteenth century.

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